Wilderness Survival – How to Build a Shelter in a Tree

Few wilderness survival resources are more important than trees, so making camp in proximity to trees often makes a great deal of sense as it puts the survivor’s shelter in proximity to resources and often provides a solid support structure off which to build.

Trees can also provide areas to build a shelter that are relatively free from deep snow. In these cases, trees can save a great deal of time and work.

Saving work by building off what is already provided by nature burns fewer calories and helps keep the survivor from working up a sweat, which can lead to severe discomfort or put the survivor at risk of hypothermia in cold weather.


  • Trees mean shelter from cold and heat alike, some species indicate the presence of surface water and any good camp site has an inexhaustible supply of firewood, so make for the trees.
  • Choose multipurpose hammock gear over the highly specialized stuff. Your expensive hammock may be comfy, but can’t catch dinner, secure an elk quarter to pack frame or be repurposed as a ghillie cloak.
  • In addition to many other survival uses, an autolocking carabiner doubles as a set of brass knuckles you can take almost anywhere, so clip one on your go bag. Add a length of 1” tubular webbing and you now have a lot more capability than if you only carry para cord.
  • Most hominid apes, including humans, build nests. Whether or not you believe in evolution, your ancestors have been building nests in trees for a long time, so you could say it is in your DNA.

Trees Provide Many Important Survival Resources

  • Fire – Trees can provide tools and tinder to start fires, fuel to keep them going, light to work into the night, coals to cook on and fire to work and cook with.
  • Shelter – Boughs provide insulation from the cold, hard ground. Branches and leaves provide a roof. Trunks and branches provide structural support, a windbreak and insulation.
  • Safety – Trees provide concealment and large trees can provide cover or a refuge from predators, snakes, thorns and biting insects. Branches from thorny trees or shrubs can also be used to create a barricade against predators.
  • Water – Some species of trees provide drinkable water, catch rainwater or provide support and shade for water-bearing vines. Other species indicate the likely presence of water or where water is likely to be near to the surface and accessible via shallow hand-dug wells. Trees also provide fire starting tools and materials to treat water by boiling.
  • Cordage – Bark is an important source of cordage material.
  • Food – Many species of trees produce edible nuts, fruits, leaves or layers of bark. Forests, trees and transition zones along the border of forests or stands of trees provide key habitat for many animal species that are useful for survival. Trees also provide engines to power snares and traps, can channel game to traps and provide secure anchor points for traps, nets and bank lines for fishing.

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  • Medicine – Many species of trees have medical uses.
  • Tanning – Branches are useful for frames to stretch hides and the bark of some species is useful for bark tanning hides.
  • Tools & Weapons – Trees provide materials for bows, arrows, spears, rodent skewers, rabbit sticks, atlatls and other important weapons.
  • Communications – Trees are useful for some methods of short-range communications, trail signs and for blazes.
  • Navigation – Trees can be useful in direction finding and ascertaining the direction of prevailing winds when choosing campsites.

While trees provide bountiful survival resources, they can also present certain dangers which should not be ignored. I will list dangers at the end of the article.

Ground-based Tree Shelters

Tree-based shelters can be built on the ground or up off the ground. The choice between the two is largely dictated by situation and availability.

Keep an open mind as you search for the beginnings of a suitable shelter site. I like to say that survival is a DIY proposition and all shelters are fixer-uppers to some degree. I do not recall ever having stumbled upon a truly readymade natural shelter that needed no improvements, but nature has been kind enough to save me a great deal of work on many occasions. 

Fallen Trees

Opportunity from fallen trees typically comes in forms of root balls and trunks. In areas with poor, shallow topsoil, trees often blow over.

A root ball can form walls or even a partial roof. Depending on how long ago the tree fell, roots can often be bent out of the way or broken to clear and area large enough to sleep. Build up the walls and roof as desired.

The trunks of fallen trees can serve as ridgepole, roof or wall depending on the size of the tree and terrain that it falls in.

Tree Wells

You could look in hundreds of tree wells and not find one that looks anything like the diagrams you will find in survival manuals. This is because the shape of tree wells is determined by interactions between the tree the well forms under, the terrain and the wind, snowfall and other weather-related factors.

What you are looking for is dryer ground, dryer fire starting materials, shallower snow, a barrier against the wind, some semblance of overhead protection from precipitation.

You may find one or two of the above or you may hit the lottery and find them all.


Species of trees with buttresses typically grow in coastal areas or rainforests and the space between two buttresses can form two or three walls and leafy branches can provide a degree of shelter from precipitation. Sometimes a windbreak on two sides is all that is needed.

Hollow Trees

Some species of trees can have large hollows among the roots, in the trunk or in large false cavities inside a circle of fused trunks in species such the baobab tree in Africa. You will not find hobbits or elves living inside hollow trees, but you may find that some other critter had the same idea that you did and beat you to it, so inspect hollow trees carefully before settling in.

Off the Ground

Most of the time, I sleep on the ground, but there are times when it is best to be up off the ground.

Reasons to Get off the Ground

  • Safety from Predators – Situation dependent, trees can offer shelter from large predators or even other human beings. Be sure you know what you are dealing with though as climbing a tree limits your mobility and some predators can climb just fine. Hanging bear bags is standard practice in bear country.
  • Creepy Crawlies – Hammocks and other suspended shelters can get you up and out of reach of snakes and venomous arthropods.
  • Swamp, Bog or Wetlands – You do not get to choose where, the weather or time of day your transportation breaks down or crashes. This, coupled with injuries, darkness or other factors that limit mobility
  • Deep Snow, Rocky or Uneven Ground – Forced to shelter on a steep, snowy and/or rocky mountainside trees or hammocks can provide welcome, time-saving alternatives.
  • Excessive Spiny or Poisonous Flora – Even in the Arizona desert, I have never had trouble finding spots to sleep on the ground free of spines or plants that produce irritants, but it is possible that you could find yourself in such a situation, especially if you are


For survival use, is generally more effective to steer clear of highly-specialized gear in favor of gear that is more modular and multipurpose. Instead of a high-end hammock, I carry gear that can serve as a hammock, but can also serve a multitude of other needs whether I am in the jungle in Brazil, a forest in the Rockies or in the desert.

Multi-purpose Hammock Gear

  • Cargo Net, General Purpose – In addition to serving as an able hammock, the GP cargo net can secure heavy/bulky materiel to a cargo frame, create a camouflage net or ghillie cape, create shade without stopping a breeze in the desert, catch fish, birds or small game for food.
  • 1” Tubular Webbing – Tubular webbing can be used to attach carabiners, lines or other equipment to trees without damaging them. It can also be used to fashion a rappelling harness or be used in combination with a carabiner to quickly rig an improvised seatbelt on a dangerous bus of train, rig a tourniquet, a ladder or a line to pull an injured comrade behind cover. The list just goes on and on. Short on space? Use it as the strap for your go bag.
  • Autolocking Carabiner & Mini Carabiners – I carry an autolocking carabiner on my go bag and two smaller, climbing-rated mini-carabiners on my go-bag. The autolocking carabiners serves double duty as a self-defense tool. Think of is brass knuckles that you can carry anywhere without looking like brass knuckles. Together with the mini-carabiners and cordage, I can hang a hammock, rig a backcountry block and tackle for heavy lifting, get down out of a third-floor window without breaking my legs and much more.
  • Para Cord – Para Cord and survival-specific composite, kernmantle-sheathed cordage are worth the weight and space they occupy in a go bag. I tie this type of cordage in rip cord hanks for compact storage and tangle-free deployment.
  • Military Poncho/Liner Combination or Equivalent – There are a lot of options that offer the same functionality as the poncho/liner combination and what I carry varies according to climate, environment, mission and so forth. Adaptations offer increased adaptability, modularity, insulation, sometimes superior materials and more but even the issue poncho and liner are an undeniably flexible bit of kit.
  • Insect Netting – I have suffered some nights of just indescribable discomfort for want of netting and repellent. With malaria, zika, west Nile and other serious arthropod-borne illnesses, it does not make sense to take chances. Add in that insect netting is lightweight and multi-use and it should find its way into your bag when you have room and headed anyplace you could find yourself in the middle of a hatch.

In a primitive setting, hammocks can sometimes be constructed of sufficiently strong natural materials. They can be woven from dried banana fronds (no banana hammock jokes please) or yucca fiber or green bamboo can be cut and split to make a hammock from natural materials.


A nest shelter is just what is sounds like. Imagine a bird’s nest, only large enough for one or more humans. Lemurs and hominid apes, including humans build nests. Gorillas build different nests for day and night with nighttime nests being more elaborate.

Day nests are typically on the ground, but night nests are sometimes in trees with building in trees being more common for juveniles, females and in high stress environments.

We humans often tend to ‘unlearn’ or bury our survival instincts, but no matter how much we suppress them, all the basics we need to survive are still in deeply imprinted in us. When I consider this, it is no surprise that we are drawn to natural settings.


A platform tree shelter is like a nest, only with a more engineered, flatter floor. Think “Robison Crusoe.” Platforms can be pegged, tied or notched together. Add some walls and a roof and you have a tree house or a hunting blind.

Tree Shelter Dangers

Survival requires a certain degree of risk management. Since there are a few dangers inherent to tree shelters, they should be weighed against other dangers before making the call to invest the energy and take the risk of building a shelter in a tree.

Widow Makers

Widow makers are dead branches or tree tops. They are so called because high and heavy-enough specimens sometimes inflict fatal wounds.


Trees should be inspected thoroughly for venomous arthropods, snakes and other potential threats/opportunities. Should you be so lucky as to find a half-dozen scorpions in your potential shelter, you just found some grub. Cut off their tails, roast them and pop the ‘land shrimp’ in your mouth. If you find a snake, then you will have a better meal.


It may or may not seem obvious, but falling even a couple of feet and hit your head on a sharp rock and no matter how bad your survival situation was, it just got worse. If the hardware holding your hammock gives way, you could just end up bruised and embarrassed, but you could also end up with skull fracture and a traumatic brain injury, depending on how you land. So, if you are thinking about saving a couple of bucks by purchasing carabiners stamped “Not for Climbing Use!”, you might want to rethink that and choose someplace else to economize.

Respiratory Dangers

Any tree that looks like it has the makings of a home for your, probably looked like a home to many animals that found it before you did. Unlike most humans, many species of animals urinate and defecate where they sleep.

This creates more of a danger than just foul smell, especially in dry climates and when bats are doing the defecating. Bat droppings are easily kicked up as dust and breathed into the lungs, where they can cause respiratory illness.


As with any debris shelter, fire is always a danger, but when you combine that with the fact that you are up a tree where your mobility is limited, and you are liable to fall, fire becomes even more dangerous. Outside a very narrow range of circumstances, keep your fire on the ground.


Survivalists clearly have a thing for camouflage, so how could it possibly be a danger? Only when you are trying to be found. Debris shelters are notoriously difficult to spot since they are basically hunting blinds that blend perfectly with the environment.

If you want to be found, be sure to construct signals where they can be seen before you hole up or your chance to be found may stroll right on past.

Written by

Cache Valley Prepper is the CEO of Survival Sensei, LLC, a freelance author, writer, survival instructor, consultant and the director of the Survival Brain Trust. A descendant of pioneers, Cache was raised in the tradition of self-reliance and grew up working archaeological digs in the desert Southwest, hiking the Swiss Alps and Scottish highlands and building the Boy Scout Program in Portugal. Cache was mentored in survival by a Delta Force Lt Col and a physician in the US Nuclear Program and in business by Stephen R. Covey. You can catch up with Cache teaching EMP survival at survival expos, teaching SERE to ex-pats and vagabonds in South America or getting in some dirt time with the primitive skills crowd in a wilderness near you. His Facebook page is here. Cache Valley Prepper is a pen name used to protect his identity. You can send Cache Valley Prepper a message at editor [at] survivopedia.com

Latest comments
  • About bug netting…i was on a pack trip when a cold front came through a bit cooler than expected, i only had one blanket in my canvas bedroll plus my bug net so i put the netting over me and between the wool blanket and the canvas… i was much warmer so now my bug net stays in my pack year round …it weighs much less than an extra blanket but gives the same insulation .leave it sort of wadded up to create air space !


    • Interesting enough, you should also consider carrying a pair or two of average Nylons, they too will keep you warmer under your clothing in winter and cooler in the summer months, its interestingly enough if you should by chance break a belt, nylons, or pantihose however you want to say it can also be used as a make shift belt, or if you get stuck to the point to where your tires are just spinning,, simply get a thick stick, thin enough to go though your wheel, but thick enough to not break easily, then take a pair of nylons and very tightly wrap around the stick around the top of your tire(s), make sure it is around the tires that are pulling or pushing your car, make sure the stick is not too far in that it will catch on the frame, and I can’t say enough, make sure it is tied very tightly, then once secured, get in your car and pull out of your stuck point slowly, once your clear and unstuck, remove and proceed on with your travels,

  • You didn’t mention lightning as a danger. If you choose to comment, please do.

    –Though you did mention apes that build two nests, ground level and tree top, who also range about in their territory (and presumably humans are wiser than apes despite that apes may be more practiced in living their wisdom than many humans seem to be).

    I lived in a Blue-Ridge campground for 3 years and frequently saw large patches of trees that were “topless” from lightning strikes (with their fingers) exploding the tops off of dozens of trees in a small area of 30 feet diameter. The big trees were gone by timber harvesting , leaving remaining trees no larger than 12-inch trunks. and maybe 25-30 feet high.

    I kept wondering why lightning struck certain places, even flat soil places, that were not near nearby higher tree areas on the mountain. I began thinking about an old farmer who put two bent metal clothes hanger rods in my hands and told me to walk ten feet and see what happens (he had buried an old car near his driveway twenty years earlier). He was showing me the electrical-and/or magnetic field caused by the buried car beneath a crop field. Then I read where a garden hose has the same effect but only when the water is running. So I started thinking that the actual mountain slope under the soil can be very different than the soil above (that can appear level in places), and that maybe ground water movement was creating enormous electro-magnetic fields that could be attracting lightning..

    Even with the lack of certainty on the issue of whether certain areas attract lightning. I would certainly recommend that if any one sees trees much smaller than surrounding trees and with no evidence of clear-cutting, or a camp site that area might not be the best proximity to build a tree-house in the woods. What I never saw was trees hit by lightning in the areas of steeper slopes; and my naive thought was that the water moved too fast down those slopes and before the “perfect lightning cloud” floated overhead..

    I know that anyone can reply that lightning can always be a danger anywhere. However, lightening does strike the same places more than once, which implies that something in (under) the ground is attracting it and acting like a huge lightning ground beacon.

    I mention all this hoping that there is some hydrologist reading this article who may offer some insights.
    I do wonder how Cache-Valley handled lightning potential in trees (maybe the answer is that the hammock lines were small enough to not attract much voltage, that if a tree was struck (even by a lightning finger) the main bolt would have traveled directly to ground.

    • Sorry about the all caps! I cut and paste to get rid of them, but it doesn’t look like it worked.

      Yes, thank you for bringing that up. In the article format it, it is extremely difficult for me to squeeze everything in that I feel needs to be covered and from time to time I omit things that I shouldn’t. I appreciate it when my readers bring up points like this. I haven’t been able to comment as frequently lately, but hope to comment regularly again.

      Lightning is a danger that should always be considered when lightning is likely or present and field weather spotting skills play an important part of wilderness survival. Do not camp anywhere near a tall tree, much less in one when lightning is a risk. Wet lines and metal objects attract lightning, so that is not the time for a tree shelter.

      Lighting only takes about 50 lives a year in the US, but I find myself outdoors a lot and have had several close calls over the years and have seen the damage it wreaks first hand. I understand why man thinks of it as the wrath of God.
      Staying away from trees altogether may not be an option if you are under a forest canopy. Look for low ground and shorter trees as higher hill tops, ridges and taller trees are far more likely to take strikes. Out of the canopy, also avoid open fields. The fact that the hammock lines are non-conductive may change if they absorb water and the hardware often used to suspend them will attract lightning.
      Distance yourself from large conductive objects such as a long gun. Definitely do not sling your weapon with the barrel up or carry it at port arms and take down any antennas. Stay away from metal tent poles or soggy wooden ones and the same goes for trekking poles and metal canes. If going indoors is an option, do. If you are with others, put some distance between you.

  • By the way, I really liked your article. 50 years ago I was still climbing trees; but I have forgotten a lot since then.

    • Thank you very much! : )

  • When I was a kid, my dad and I were walking around the lower forty when we got caught by surprise by a rain storm. My dad lead me to one of the only beech trees I remember on our place and told me that lightening doesn’t strike beech trees, so they are safe to shelter beneath during a storm. Now, I don’t know if that’s true or not, but a lot of old beliefs like that are true, whether we understand why or not. I’m not that familiar with the growth habits of beech trees and I don’t recall seeing very many when I was growing up in Mississippi, but I do recall that the beech tree we took shelter under was not very tall, and was dwarfed by the tall pines and oaks that surrounded it, so if they generally don’t grow tall (again, I don’t know), perhaps this leads credence to the old wisdom. If anyone has been told the same thing, or is more familiar with beech trees than I am, by all means, please CHIME in with what you know.


  • could this be from an old german saying? “”Buchen sollst du suchen ” (seek a beech), ”eichen sollst du meiden”” (avoid the oaks”)
    if you are cought in a storm.
    i grew up in southern germany, our forests were mostly beeches and oaks .as kids we had a great time roaming the woods ,building shelters ,
    catching trout,and liberating fruits of the land from nearby fields.
    my granddauhters can proram those newfangled cellphones ,i can’t ,but i teach them how to start a fire.

  • My brothers often made a rope bed between two parallel branches in the back yard apple tree. A secured cargo net would save weaving time. I find your advice helpful and will also remember the old timer beech tree advice if caught out in an lightning storm.
    Now I am curious if a box or something is built of beech wood will provide protection from electrical dangers (EMP lining in a can type Faraday type enclosure.)